Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Conditional Reasoning with Negations: Matching Bias and Implicit Versus Explicit Affirmation...

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Research Article

Conditional Reasoning with Negations: Matching Bias and Implicit Versus Explicit Affirmation or Denial

Authors:

Walter Schroyens ,

Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, Tiensestraat 102, 3000 Leuven, BE
X close

Walter Schaeken,

University of Leuven, BE
X close

Niki Verschueren,

University of Leuven, BE
X close

Géry D’Ydewalle

University of Leuven, BE
X close

Abstract

We report a study examining the effect of implicit affirmation and denial in reasoning with negative conditionals. Four conditional inference problems are constructed by an affirmation of the antecedent (Modus Ponens, MP), an affirmation of the consequent (AC), a denial of the antecedent (DA) or a denial of the consequent (Modus Tollens, MT). Depending on the presence of negations in the conditionals, these problems were set with an implicit or explicit type of referencing (i.e. affirmation or denial). Implicit affirmation and denial introduced matching bias effects: When the topic of the categorical premise (e.g., the letter B) does not match the topic of the conditional's referred clause (e.g., If there is a letter A), participants made fewer conditional inferences. The effect of implicit affirmation (e.g., ‘the letter B’ affirms an antecedent ‘if there is no A’) was larger than the effect of implicit denial, and reading times (obtained by eye movement recordings) showed that implicit affirmation problems took longer to solve whereas implicit denial problems were solved faster than the explicit denial problems. Both findings are novel and we hypothesize that the larger effect on implicit affirmation of a negative (as compared to implicit denial of an affirmative) is due to uncertainty in considering a single instance sufficient to affirm the entire contrast class of that negative.

How to Cite: Schroyens, W., Schaeken, W., Verschueren, N. and D’Ydewalle, G., 1999. Conditional Reasoning with Negations: Matching Bias and Implicit Versus Explicit Affirmation or Denial. Psychologica Belgica, 39(4), pp.235–258. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/pb.952
1
Views
Published on 01 Jan 1999.
Peer Reviewed

Downloads

  • PDF (EN)

    comments powered by Disqus