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Research Article

Effects of Interpersonal Style and Instructional Set on the Verbal and Nonverbal Encoding of Ingratiation

Authors:

Luc M. Lefebvre ,

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Instituut voor Lichamelijke Opleiding Tervuursevest 101 3030 Heverlee, BE; University of California, Los Angeles Hilgard Avenue 405 Los Angeles, Ca. 90024, US
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John D. Cunningham

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Instituut voor Lichamelijke Opleiding Tervuursevest 101 3030 Heverlee, BE; University of California, Los Angeles Hilgard Avenue 405 Los Angeles, Ca. 90024, US
About John D.
Requests for reprints should be sent to the first author: Department of Physical Education, 101 Tervuursevest, 3030 Heverlee, Belgium.
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Abstract

An interview situation was arranged in which male subjects in the role of interviewees were instructed to act ingratiatingly, spontaneously, or objectively toward a female interviewer. Ingratiating behaviors of high and low scorers on the Ring Interpersonal Style Test were also investigated in this 3×2 factorial design. As predicted, more opinion conformity, self- and other-enhancement, and smiling occurred in the ingratiation than spontaneity or objectivity conditions. The prediction that high R-scorcrs would display more attractiveness cues than low R scorers was confirmed for self-presentation, other-enhancement, and the Gergen Self-Validation Test. In addition, smiling was the most sensitive measure in distinguishing between high and low R-scorers. Contrary to prediction, high R-scorers smiled less than low R-scorers in the ingratiation condition. A principal component factor analysis revealed two reference axes, best labelled ‘ingratiation’ and ‘positiveness’ Differences between ingratiation and positiveness are discussed.
How to Cite: Lefebvre, L.M. and Cunningham, J.D., 1975. Effects of Interpersonal Style and Instructional Set on the Verbal and Nonverbal Encoding of Ingratiation. Psychologica Belgica, 15(2), pp.113–126. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/pb.573
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Published on 01 Jan 1975.
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